Goa is a former Portuguese province; the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.
Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and world heritage architecture.
It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population.
Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy.It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot.In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals, tectiforms and other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre.The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 metres (3,829 ft). Goa's seven major rivers are the Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal. Goa has more than 40 estuarine, eight marine, and about 90 riverine islands.The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157 mi).By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits.